Industry Profile: Richard Gottehrer
By Larry LeBlanc
This week In The Hot Seat with Larry LeBlanc: Richard Gottehrer
Richard Gottehrer is the co-founder & chief creative officer of the digital distributor, The Orchard.
Gottehrer is also a prominent Bronx songwriter, record producer and the co-founder of Sire Records.
Gottehrer never planned on a music career. In 1962, after becoming the first in his family to receive a college degree (in history, from Adelphi University in Long Island), Gottehrer enrolled at the Brooklyn Law School.
However, a career in law didn’t follow.
In 1961, while at Adelphi, Gottehrer had co-founded his first record production company, and had recorded as Troy & the T-Birds.
In 1963 an impromptu writing session with Bob Feldman and Jerry Goldstein, led to the trio co-writing and co-producing the Angels’ #1 Billboard hit "My Boyfriend’s Back."
It was followed two years later by their production of the McCoys’ “Hang On Sloopy” which also reached #1 on Billboard.
As the Strangeloves, Gottehrer, Bob Feldman and Jerry Goldstein had their own string of hits, including the 1965 single "I Want Candy." The song has since charted with Bow Wow Wow in 1982, and Aaron Carter in 2000.
In 1966, Gottehrer and Seymour Stein co-founded Sire Records. Gottehrer left Sire in 1976, and produced Blondie, the Go-Go's, Joan Armatrading, the Fleshtones, Mental As Anything, Dr. Feelgood and many others.
in 1997, Gottehrer and Scott Cohen co-founded The Orchard. In 2003, The Orchard was acquired by Dimensional Associates, and it merged with the Digital Music Group in 2007.
Headquartered in New York and London, and with offices in 29 countries around the world, The Orchard licenses and globally distributes more than 1.3 million songs and 4,000 video titles through hundreds of digital stores and mobile carriers.
The Orchard has continued to outpace the digital industry substantially through key acquisitions (including TVT last year,) leading distribution alliances (including those with Vice, and Nokia) and its strategy as a value-added media services company.
Under its buyout of TVT, The Orchard assumed control of the company’s catalogue of recorded masters, artist contracts and physical record distribution infrastructure.
The addition of physical distribution from TVT may be seen as making The Orchard a more competitive company, one that can better address the needs of select record label partners in the U.S. marketplace.
In February, The Orchard negotiated a secured, revolving credit line with Palo Alto's Peninsula Bank Funding which could provide both the opportunity to continue its acquisition of assets and as a hedge against tough economic times.
On March 26th, The Orchard reported financial results for the fourth quarter and year ending Dec. 31, 2008.
Revenues were $16.2 million compared to $9.9 million for the same quarter in 2007, an increase of 64%. Net loss for the quarter was $0.3 million compared to a loss of $2.4 million in the same quarter of 2007.
For 2008 overall, revenues doubled to $57.4 million from $28.5 million in 2007. Net loss for 2008 was $2.3 million, compared with a loss of $7.6 million in 2007.
In addition to managing the digital retail relationship on the labels' behalf, The Orchard has incorporated features like online sales reporting, synch licensing databases and other analytical tools to help their clients take advantage of opportunities traditionally left to bigger companies.
In addition, The Orchard drives sales of music through its marketing and promotional campaigns; brand entertainment programs; and film, advertising, gaming and television licensing.
The Orchard also tries to place their clients on the widest possible selection of services.
For example, last year, Merlin, A2IM, Koch and others in the independent music community lambasted the indie digital deal offered by MySpace Music, arguing that it didn’t give them the same equity stake as the major labels. So they balked at the MySpace Music terms.
However, The Orchard jumped in, and signed up.
You don’t believe in the death of the music industry?
I don’t believe in the death of the industry at all. The future is a lot brighter (than what others think). What has happened is that we have seen an absolute change in the industry.
The Orchard had a very strong fourth quarter in 2008.
I am very happy about the growth of The Orchard when you think it is something that Scott Cohen (VP Europe) and I started in a basement on Orchard Street (in New York) in1997. To see it growing like this and see it in the hands of great leadership now [is great]. The day to day is run by our Greg Scholl (president & CEO) with some great people. Greg is not only a great business person but he’s a music lover.
The Orchard has no debt load. Is this a reflection of the tough economic times we are now in?
We have been fortunate in growing the way we have and to be able to have the continuity and cash flow to function and operate. We’ll continue to grow.
You launched The Orchard during a time that American investors were throwing money at dotcoms. Most of them disappeared.
We never got the money. That was both good and bad. It was bad because we didn’t enrich ourselves but if we had (outside investor financing) the company would have been gone. It wouldn’t have been able to survive the dotcom crash. The demand by investors to repay the money would have probably been overwhelming. A lot of great ideas went awry in that period because of that.
The Orchard grew organically for a few years.
It grew organically until 2003 when it was taken on by Dimensional Associates (a private equity firm and a subsidiary of JDS Capital Management) and Greg was put in as CEO. From there, it continued to grow partially organically but also through sound management. Scott and I are great entrepreneurs. Having people who understand the business of true business and who can take a company that is a great idea and build and grow it as the (music) industry continues to contract, is absolutely the most positive thing.
The Orchard’s merger with the Digital Music Group in 2007 gave the company further market clout.
It changed the impression of The Orchard because they were a public company and, as we merged into them and were the surviving party, the name changed to The Orchard. We are now publicly listed.
The merger with DMGI gave us over 4,000 hours of video and a starting point to expand further into video. It made us a full service company. Not only can we create great opportunities but we are capable of doing business at the level of any company, including the major labels.
Video isn’t formed as a sales medium in the digital marketplace yet.
We are still in the early stages. People aren’t buying a lot of videos digital or what we have, a lot of independent stuff. What the merger did was that it showed The Orchard to be serious on becoming an even bigger leader in an emerging industry. Then you add on TVT with another catalog and with a physical (distribution) component that allows us to get involved with a company like Vice.
The company seems to be searching for assets it can own.
Obviously, we look at other ways of growing. As we expand our marketing capabilities, and our ability to feed this expensive global system, we’ll look for others way to grow. That includes finding catalogs that bring more value to the company.
The TVT acquisition brought us some great catalog music. We also moved down to the space that they occupied in Soho from uptown (New York). Now we are in an environment that is more conducive to the music that we release.
The TVT acquisition gives you the ability to now offer physical distribution. Was there a demand by labels to have both a digital and a physical distribution presence?
Labels we might be interested in might not look at us in the same way if we can’t offer them physical as well. When we took on TVT, there was a physical team in place which we have expanded by bringing in some top people.
Some indie labels do more business with digital.
The physical business is not a growing business. It’s a value add-on (component of our business). We are a digital company, and our future is in developing more and more outlets for digital distribution
We have our global reach and an ability to function in all of the different aspects of the music spectrum—marketing, sync/advertising placement and brand awareness. The word “360” is silly but music today is a total picture. in order to succeed today, the musician should succeed on multiple levels. Not necessarily an, “Is anyone going to buy their record?” type of thing.
Of all the businesses in the music industry affected by the evolution of digital distribution, no area has benefited more than the indie label community. The majors were slow in adapting to digital distribution but they’ve recently jumped in with both feet.
At this point, the writing is on the wall and things have changed for the industry. I think they missed the boat. They didn’t move quickly enough. But in fairness, there is an obligation attached to being the owner or creator of a copyright of music. You just can’t give it away, even if people want it or free.
What should the majors have done in the early days of music on the internet?
I don’t know what the answer is. They probably should have embraced the change. They should have worked as an industry instead of suing people for not doing what they wanted them to do. They should have tried to find ways of monetizing the music. Maybe they should have tried to license music to the ISPs or mobile (phone) operators.
I can’t say anything negative about anyone running a big company. But, in the end, that spirit of originality and entrepreneurship and the ability to go beyond quarterly operations escaped them. There was nobody who stood up and said, “I am the head of this company. We are going to license Napster. This is what the future is.” Nobody did that because it wasn’t in their purview. There was nobody strong enough to stand up at a corporate meeting and say, “If we don’t do this, our business will begin to deteriorate.”
Do we need to own music today?
It depends on how peoples’ concepts develop. We needed to own (albums and CDs)) because they were rare things packaged and created for us. We associate the ownership of a record or a CD with personal use.
Today, there are people who just want to go to iTunes, buy music and own it. There are others who don’t care about owning music as long as they know it is available on subscription or whatever They might as well stream (their music). As society changes from having the desperate need to own things, and music becomes less rare, streaming will become a bigger part of the future.
The Orchard made a controversial deal with MySpace Music last year. Was the motivation to just get into that market?
Absolutely. If you are not in the game, you have no chance of winning. If Universal, Sony and EMI own a piece of (MySpace Music), so what? They have music that more people want. If they can enforce that kind of leverage, that’s fine.
As The Orchard, we have an obligation to the people that have licensed us their music to not only monetize the music but to introduce them to new ways to (distribute music) while the music is paid for. We are not talking about giving it away for free. Other independent people that don’t participate aren’t going to be paid.
It is the same with telephone use coming with music. What’s wrong with that? Buy a phone, you get the music. Part of the revenue stream then goes back to the rights owners.
[The Orchard is now offering it member labels and artists access to an iPhone application development program called Mobile Roadie, provided by partner Fluidesign. The company has added the Mobile Roadie program to its Artist/Label Workstation program, an online management tool that aggregates sales, assets and other information for Orchard users.]
The entry point into the music industry today for an artist is similar to when you entered it in the ‘50s
Right. You know what? It was never about anything but luck back then. You went out on the road, and you played. If you did well maybe you got a chance to make a record. If it was great, what were the chances of it being heard? If it was heard, what were the chances of someone buying it? How could you predict that? Back then, you could make a lot of music but you had to be lucky at the same time. It is the same today.
You entered an industry that, like today, only had a few major labels, Decca, EMI and Columbia. It was a world of independent labels back then.
That’s true. There might have been major labels but they weren’t corporate controlled. It was still the business of music. However, the majors were not necessarily interested in what we called the new music--which was R&B or black music. But there was a group of young people then discovering and experiencing music from a different perspective--be it socially or racially different, then turning that into something of their own (rock and roll).
Columbia Records didn’t get into rock and roll until Mitch Miller [the powerful head of the company’s popular division] left in 1961. He passed on both Elvis Presley and Buddy Holly.
Mitch Miller thought rock and roll was useless. At Columbia, he was still alive and vital into the ‘60s. But there was also (producer) John Hammond who supported Bob Dylan and a lot of other great things. He was able to recognize a true talent that deserved to be recorded.
For years, ASCAP wouldn’t sign R&B or country songwriters because they weren’t considered legitimate songwriters.
I am still a member of BMI. When I entered the business, it was during the early days or rock and roll. That’s where all the new songwriters went. You were frowned upon at ASCAP.
You played in several bands in high school. Were they rock and roll bands?
We played YMCA and YMHA dances. We would play all of the pop standards from the “fake” book, four-chord ballads like (the Penguin’s) “Earth Angel” or songs by (crooner) Rusty Draper. We’d also insert a boogie woogie or a rock and roll song into sets. We found a guitar player who had country roots and could play rockabilly.
You studied history at Adelphi University, and later law but you were too interested in songwriting to graduate.
Early on, I would write for my own sake. I was a piano player and I learned to write songs by experimenting. It seemed easy to me.
At Adelphi, I met a couple of guys and one of them introduced me to Allan Chesler. His father was Lou Chesler the head of (the film company Seven Arts Productions which had a record label (Seven Arts). Allan wanted to do something in the (music) business as well. So we formed a production company. He introduced me to Morty Kraft who was running the label. [A producer and also owner of Melba Records] Morty is a legendary music industry figure. He was always telling me, “Kid you should go back to law school. What are you doing here?” Of course, I didn’t. I made a couple of records. One of them Morty gave me recently. It’s called “Twistle” and came out under the name Troy & the T-Birds on Seven Arts.
[Lou Chesler has been described as a front or associate of underworld crime bosses Vito Genovese and Meyer Lansky through the Florida real estate company General Development Corp. which he owned with another Lasky associate, Wallace Groves]. In 1967 his company, now called Seven Arts, acquired Jack Warner's controlling interest in Warner Bros. Pictures and other interests, including Warner Bros. Records and Reprise Records for $84 million. The company was renamed Warner Bros-Seven Arts.] You starting hanging around The Brill Building?
I was walking around with my songs. I met a couple of publishers and I had a few songs recorded. On one occasion I was waiting outside a publisher’s office with two other guys. We got stood up by the publisher so we left. One of them had a room somewhere and we sat down and started writing songs. That was with Bob Feldman and Jerry Goldstein.
That led to co-writing and co-producing “My Boyfriend’s Back” by the Angels that reached #1 on Billboard in 1963.
Yes, that led to “My Boyfriend’s Back.” But we wrote other songs before that were recorded. We were beginning to get a bit of a reputation. We learned how to (produce) records by making the demos. We were making demos of our songs to show to artists. In those days, (pop) artists didn’t write their own material. They look to publishers who had the new generation of young songwriters under contract to write songs that fit their style.
(For the Angel sessions), we used studio musicians and worked out the arrangement with the arranger, Leroy Glover. He wrote the arrangements out so we were able to record four songs in three hours.
In 1965, you, Bob Feldman and Jerry Goldstein produced a #1 hit with “Hang On Sloopy” by the McCoys. As well, “I Want Candy” which you three recorded under the name the Strangeloves reached #11 on Billboard. Both were on Bang Records.
We became friends with (Bang Record owner, producer/songwriter) Bert Berns and we sat around and wrote “I Want Candy” with him. Then we recorded the song as the Strangeloves and put it out on Bang Records, the record label Bert started with Ahmet and Nesuhi Ertegun and Jerry Wexler from Atlantic Records.
Didn’t the Strangeloves also record as the Beach-Nuts?
We were the Beach-Nuts and we continued working with the Angels. The Strangeloves had three hit singles very quickly. “I Want Candy,” “Cara-Lin” and “Night Time,” a great song I sang that has been recorded by the J. Geils Band and George Thorogood. Our songs have been recorded by many others over the years.
Do you have a favorite version of “I Want Candy?”
Bow Wow Wow’s version became the definitive version.
[“I Want Candy” was also covered by Melanie C for the 2007 film of the same name and Good Charlotte covered the song in the film “Not Another Teen Movie.”]
Though you three were basically a production team, you also toured as the Strangeloves?
We weren’t very good performers but we went out anyway. We could sing a few songs. We could do “I Want Candy,” “Time is On My Side,” and “Hang On Sloopy” (recorded by the Vibrations in 1964 as “My Girl Sloopy” on Atlantic Records). And a Chuck Berry song. That was our show.
You didn’t really have to tour then. You could go on television. We did NBC’s “Hulabaloo” that was hosted by Sammy Davis Jr. with guests the Supremes, the Lovin’ Spoonful, and Sonny & Cher. And there we were…the Strangeloves. And because we were passing ourselves off as Australians, they put us in a thatched roof hut wearing skin vests to do our hit. It was a bit of spectacle.
How did the production team come to produce the McCoys’ “Hang On Sloopy” on Bang Records?
When we would go out and perform, there would be a backup band. In a show near Columbus, Ohio, Rick and the Raiders were the backup band. They got as big a reaction from the fans as we did as national stars. Being producers, we took them right off the stage, met their parents the next day and suggested we could make records with them. The band, including their parents, followed us back to New York in a caravan of cars. We already had the track for “Hang On Sloopy.” It is the same version as on the Strangelove’s album (“I Want Candy” in 1965).
Hang On Sloopy” is pure American pop recorded in a very organized, calculated way by people who were at the top of their game of making American pop records. It’s pretty perfect for a pop record.
Sire Records started as Sire Productions in 1966, co-founded by you and Seymour Stein.
I met Seymour when he was hired by Bang to promote the Strangelove’s version of “Hang On Sloopy.” Seymour was a great promotion man. He learned his trade through working at Billboard in the chart department and from working with (King Records owner) Syd Nathan. Seymour and I became friends and the production company seemed like a good idea at the time.
Did you have a concept for the company?
Not at first. It was only a production company at first. We had no money but we got an advance from Epic Records, and we produced some good R&B records for them but nothing sold. Seymour had a relationship with a one-stop distributor (known as a rack jobber) in Fall River, Massachusetts named Danny Gittelman. He put up some financing and we got a distribution deal with London Records, the American arm of British Decca. We produced a couple of folk type records with David Santo and Allan Thomas.
Then you and Seymour started going to Europe and picking up acts?
We got the Climax Blues Band, Barclay James Harvest, Renaissance, the Social Deviants, and Focus by going to Europe. We would work with the export departments of record companies who had American affiliates. They were making great records but if they weren’t hits in the UK, labels like Capitol or London, wouldn’t want to put them out in the U.S. So we would license them.
We would go over there with cheesecakes from Turf Cheesecake Company (in Harrison, New York). We’d bring about 20 cheesecakes over and give them to people, and they would give us records.
By this time Danny wanted out of the partnership. I think we found some money and bought him out. We continued going to Europe.
Sire was developing with these European bands as radio was shifting in North America from AM Top 40 to free-form rock formats on FM.
We had the music when this shift happened. While we were smart enough to get the music, we didn’t necessarily anticipate the shift. But the shift certainly happened, and it benefited us.
Sire itself never became a real stand alone record label. It was always under the auspices of a larger entity. First with London Records, then at Polydor where we didn’t do that well, and then at Famous/ABC where we brought Focus. That is where we really became a record label. They provided (promotion and marketing services) for a small fee.
Did you leave Sire in 1976 to get back into producing?
I guess. I was dissatisfied with my role. It was probably time for a change.
Have you and Seymour remained close?
We’re friends. We are probably better friends now than in ages. It’s like having family. You have a brother and you may not talk to him for whatever reason but he’s still your brother.
Any misgivings about leaving Sire given what a powerhouse label it grew into?
No. I did alright. I don’t think I was cut out to run a record company. With Sire, it’s fine that it went onto the successes of Madonna, Depeche Mode, the Pretenders and so. That’s brilliant. Seymour’s ability to recognize that uniqueness in people is what makes him a great A&R person.
You have produced an astonishing number of contemporary acts-- everything from Blondie to Beat Rodeo to Aerosmith, and including the Go-Go’s, Joan Armatrading, Robert Gordon, and Richard Hell.
What do you look for in deciding to produce an act?
I always look for songs and some degree of personality. But the thing that separates artists that makes one great as opposed to being good, are the songs. After awhile, you will burn out on the image of someone
When I first went to see Blondie, for example, I obviously noticed that Debbie (Harry) has a very commercial voice and she had a great image and was beautiful. But what really made the difference for me were their songs. On their first two albums, which were the only two I did with them [“Blondie,” and “Plastic Letters”], you can’t forget those great songs. And that was before “Heart of Glass” (in 1979)
It was the same with the Go-Go’s. It was the songs that made the difference. The fact that they were all girls playing their instruments, fine. But without the songs…
You still do some production work today.
I do go into the studio occasionally with the Ravonettes. They are real special and, if I can help, I will try to. Outside of that I don’t spend much time recording
Despite the wide range of your production work, you seem to have a pop music heart.
That’s essentially true. I even look at music that way today. I see great bands and I think, “Wow, if they just had that one magic song.”
Larry LeBlanc is widely recognized as one of the leading music industry journalists in the world. Before joining CelebrityAccess in 2008, Larry was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record. He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, the London Times and the New York Times.
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Marty Diamond, Paradigm 01/22/10
Glenn Dicker, Redeye Distribution/Yep Roc Records 07/07/06
Barry Dickins, International Talent Booking Agency 06/06/13
Mark Dinerstein, The Knitting Factory 11/17/06
Jasper Donat, Music Matters 2009/Branded 04/24/09
Jim Donio, National Association of Recording Merchandisers 04/22/11
Marc Dottore, M. Dottore Management 04/11/03
Tim Drake, The Roots Agency 12/12/08
Mike Dreese, Newbury Comics 11/23/11
Charles Driebe, Blind Ambition Management Ltd. 09/22/06
Jeremy Driesen, Ray Bloch Productions 09/07/01
Michael Drumm, Music Link Productions 07/18/08
Angie Dunn, Lucky Artist Booking 10/13/06
Jay Durgan, MEDIAmobz 11/09/11
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver's Division of Theatres & Arenas 08/02/02
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver’s Division of Theatres and Arenas 08/23/10
Paolo d’Alessandro, International Solutions 06/25/14
Ros Earls, 140dB Management 02/19/14
Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock ’n’ Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gélinas, Festival d’été de Québec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, Turntable.fm 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
André Ménard, Festival International de Jazz de Montréal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley O’Connor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, ItsAboutMusic.com 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, Twincloud.com 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, CultureCatch.com 07/27/07
Jeremiah “Ice” Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06
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