Industry Profile: Donald Passman
By Larry LeBlanc
This week In the Hot Seat: Donald Passman, partner, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown.
Now in its seventh edition, Donald Passman's book ďAll You Need To Know About The Music BusinessĒ (Free Press, Simon & Schuster) continues being an essential read for anyone in the music industry.
If you want to know how major and indie label deals are structured; the different types of royalties that musicians can earn; what a manager, an agent or a publisher should do, itís all in this quirky, often humorous, book.
In the late Ď80s, Passman was teaching a course on the music industry at the University Southern California Law School's Advanced Professional Program. He felt that his class notes for that year would make a good outline for a book. As well, he figured that there was a need in the market for a book on how to make it in the music business.
In 1991, the first edition of ďAll You Need To Know About The Music BusinessĒ was published. It was a wild success.
This new edition contains extensive updates since the last release in 2006, including recent developments in such issues as digital downloading, piracy, and all-encompassing 360 label deals.
For the past 35 years, Passman has practiced law with Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown in Beverly Hills. Founded in 1931, the firm has handled a host of show business royalty for general transactional representation.
The firm also offers counseling and representation in such areas as intellectual property, personal business, wealth transfers and real estate.
During his nearly four decade career, Passman has represented such major acts as Green Day, Pink, Tina Turner, Quincy Jones, Don Henley, Tom Waits, Bryan Adams, Bonnie Raitt, and Randy Newman.
He handled both the negotiations for Janet Jackson's switch from A&M to Virgin in 1994 as well as R.E.M.ís re-signing to Warner Bros. in 1996.
Passman, who has lectured at Harvard Law School, Yale Law School, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has also represented publishers, record companies, managers, producers, film companies, and other significant music industry players. All of these experiences have pointedly helped to inform his music industry handbook which he revises every three years.
Passman grew up in Dallas until his family moved to North Hollywood when he was 12. He went on to be a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Texas, and a Cum Laude graduate of Harvard Law School.
While he knew he wanted to be an attorney, Passman didn't realize that there was even such a thing as a music attorney until his first year at law school. He loved music, and he had always been around music. He played in bands, and his stepfather was a DJ.
After graduation, Passman worked for a tax firm which, when he was hired, had indicated it would be expanding into entertainment. After 18 months, when the firm had still not developed that business significantly, Passman decided to make a change. He joined Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown.
One of his first case files was unrelated to music, however. His senior partner, Martin Gang represented actress Elizabeth Taylor, and he sent Passman to Switzerland to handle her divorce from Richard Burton.
Passman has also written two thriller mysteries, ďThe Visionary" and "Mirage," both published by Warner Books.
Did you ever think youíd have a seventh edition of the book?
When I first wrote the book, I had no idea. I certainly had hoped so. But I wanted to do a book even if it was only one edition. It has worked out really well.
Thereís certainly been some big changes in the music industry in the past decade.
Oh man, (with) this last edition, I had to make enormous changes. It was probably the most (changes) that I have ever made. I do the books every three years. I am now updating the UK version of the book. Itís the same book with UK sections. I have a couple of lawyers over there who help me keep up.
EMI faces being taken over by its bankers after failing to do a deal to sell the North American distribution rights for its artists to Universal Music Group or Sony Music. Any thoughts on EMIís future?
I really donít know. I would be surprised if it isnít sold or merged with Warners. EMI Publishing is doing fine, but their house is built on the boat that is floating the record company.
Besides the majors being hurt by downloading on the internet in the past decade, they lost such marketing tools as radio and TV, and their dominance at retail has been diminished. They donít have the clout they once had.
They certainly are not the gatekeepers that they once were. Originally, the record companies were the only way you could get into retail with any prominenceóor at all. They were also the only way to get on radio with (the help of) a lot of independent promotion money and, as well as with, their relationships. It wasnít even just the money. If you funded (a recording) yourself, you still needed the record companiesí clout, threats and things like that to get on the radio.
Now anybody can get their music out there. Itís not that difficult. And radio has become a very narrow channel so that you donít have that much chance to get on radio no matter who you are.
But the problem is that every artist can now get their music out there. I think there are what 7 million bands on MySpace? So that means 7 million bands can do it. How do you break through the noise? The record companies are morphing into marketing machines--to help get your music above the crowd.
Artist managers have expanded into marketing as well.
Oh, I think thatís right. ďEntertainment companiesĒówhatever that means in the futureóis the way the business is going, whether (marketing) comes from the record label side, the manager side or some convergence.
Two decades ago, labels told an artist and their manager, ďHereís your marketing plan.Ē Today, managers may have their own marketing plans that can be developed in working with labels.
I think thatís right. Certainly, the good managers are doing that. Companies have cut back so much staff that the managers have to make it up (with services). A lot of them are doing it themselves. They donít even bother with the record companies. It is a rough time for record companies, right now. For all of the obvious reasons.
Are there guarantees of marketing support anymore in a record deal, even with a major act?
No. Not really. Thatís pretty well has gone. They (labels) are so scared these days because they donít know what they are going to sell.
Are the deals coming though your office more varied today?
Yes. First of all there are few record deals because there are few players, and the companies are cutting back (on rosters). We are certainly getting into more interesting and more complex things as we deal with digital rights, streaming and artists wanting to put material on the internet. Everything is more complicated.
Have you done any recording deals directly with labels overseas?
I have done a few. An artist needs to have a lot of clout to do that in todayís world. But, yes, I have certainly done some. Usually, (with a deal) itís North America, and the rest of the world. For new artists, itís pretty hard to separate the world out unless they have done foreign first. Record companies donít want to do that. For artists with some clout, you can say, ďThis is all you are getting.Ē
Are recording contracts more complex today? Or are they the same template?
They are somewhat the same template, but with the way the business works every time something new comes along they add another 5 or 7 pages to the contract. So contracts today are longer, and there are now provisions for dealing with all of these new medias. It is trickier, and more complicated (negotiating) because we are dealing a lot of times with things that donít yet exist, and everybody is worried about being left out. It is more complex than it was. But the template is basically the same.
Well, thereís no longer charges anymore for breakage for records shipped.
No more breakage, and there are no returns on digital either.
There is more agreement today on how digital rights should be treated.
Most of the industry--not all--has moved over to a very simplified royalty structure which is the royalty rate applied against the pure wholesale price. Period. It didnít change any penny rate because when they made the switch over they just adjusted the royalty rate to come out as to the same penny. It just makes life much simpler.
Lately, 360 deals have become the norm at all major labels. They want a piece of non-recording income. How hard-nosed are they being in negotiating the 360 degree clauses?
They are being pretty hardnosed. Like anything else if an artist has enough clout you can get around it or you can get it so minimal that it doesnít mean much. But they (labels) are pretty tough about it for the simple reason that they perceive that their core business is no longer all that profitable. For them to put the kind of money into developing an artist that they need to (to be successful), they feel that they have to get other income revenue in order to justify the investment.
Does a major artist have some wiggle room in negotiations to say no to a 360 deal?
If they have enough clout, they can do it with some labels. But others will insist on something, even if itís a small taste.
Are the 360 terms for the length of the contract or are they more ongoing?
They usually end when the deal ends. Thatís true unless the company is taking active publishing rights which go on as long as the publishing deal goes on. They donít cross-collaterize (income), but they may insist that you do make a publishing deal with them the same time that you make a record deal.
A singer/songwriter signs with record company, they have to sign with the affiliated publishing company?
Thatís coming back to some degree under 360 deals.
Traditionally, recoupment provisions in record contracts had payback conditions so onerous and unfair that, in many cases, the amount owed could never be paid back. Are the clauses for recoupment today as onerous as they once were?
They are just as onerous as they once were, but the difference is that a: The companies arenít spending as much so they donít (need to) recoup as much; and, b: The records arenít selling as much. So they hardly ever recoup at all.
No artist today is sacred even if they have just sold 10 million albums.
Well, nobodyís selling 10 million anymore. If the company sells 5 million, they are dancing on the roof.
Traditionally, an artist signed with a label deal for low points, and then renegotiated after a big selling album.
That doesnít work anymore. Even if they have a successful album today, the companies are so scared that the next one isnít going to be very successful that they are much more conservative about (renegotiating).
Under reversion of copyrights, are artists more able today to get back the rights to their masters?
No. It is actually harder today than it has been because the companies are so desperate to hang onto any kind of assets that they can that reversions are very difficult to attain.
The same in publishing?
No. Publishing reversions are still pretty easy to get if a songwriter has enough clout. It is directly related to how much money they want to take from the publisher.
The controlled composition clause on mechanicalsóhow much the company has to pay for each controlled composition-- known as a 3/4 rateóhas been dropped in many territories, but not in the U.S.
In the U.S., for deals made after 1995, the controlled composition clause doesnít apply to digital. It is becoming less and less relevant as the world moves more and more toward digital. It is meaningless.
While it has become harder to get physical CDs into stores--even for the majors--at least 70% of the business of some labels is still in physical goods.
It absolutely is. But so far thereís no movement to get away from it (the controlled composition clause).
Outside North America, the mechanical rate is a percentage of wholesale. American publishers have always refused to adopt something like that. Meanwhile, the wholesale rate continues going down which affects the impact of the mechanical rate.
Exactly. Thatís all the more reason why they think they need the controlled composition clause. From the artist point of view, it absolutely should be taken out but, from the record company point of viewóas I understand their positionóas prices drop, and as mechanicals become a bigger and bigger piece of the wholesale price, they need to have some cap there.
Many in the industry are skeptical that ad-supported music services will work in any significant way. The services are still having a difficult time monetizing music to advertisers.
I personally believe in a subscription model, but I donít think that we can deliver the kind of subscription service in order to make it really work.
Subscription-based services arenít cross-platform nor convenient enough yet.
Yeah, cross platform. I have my iTunes player organized on somebody elseís server plus access to anything else that I would want. I can get that on my computer but I also can get it on my portable connected device, my stereo at home, my car and even, maybe, on an airplane. When I can get that with a (subscription service) then, I think, we will have a subscription service that people will actually pay for.
With the music industry still coming to terms with the digital world, it is hard for anyone to even start a music service other than as a niche player.
Well, I think thatís right. I think that itís getting better because the companies are feeling more pain. But, it is still tough to get anything done if you are a new company.
Meanwhile, thereís the argument that artists and labels should give music away for free, and then pick up revenue from other revenue streams.
I donít agree with that. That is essentially what is happening right now to a large degree, but I donít think that (the music industry) is ever over. I just donít think that we havenít delivered the services that people want. Technologically, I donít think we can yet, but I think that within a few years we will be able to.
At the same time itís harder to find individual titles at retail today.
Certainly, the (brick-and-mortar music) retail business is going to be extinct. It is pretty much there now. Not really but it is going to be extinct in the not so distance future. The brick-and-mortar music retailing and physical CDs. I donít think thereís any question about that. But, I donít think that the music business is going to go away. The way I understand it is that there is more music being used and consumed now than ever in history. It isnít being paid for, but itís out there and very much part of the culture.
People still like to shop though.
Thereís a generation of people that are used to shopping online. The experience of going into a record store hardly exists here (in Los Angeles). Amoeba Music is here, and itís terrific. But most retailers are cutting back floor space (for music) because they are selling less CDs which means that they even cut more floor space.
In buying or downloading music online, an emotional component is missing...
I totally get it, and I agree with you. But kids have grown up with (the attitude) you get music by trading with friends.
How do you then monetize music?
As I said, I think we have a subscription service that delivers what is perceived as value. Then we can strip the pirates.
Are most of the contract disputes that arise with a label over, ďYou blew my last record?Ē
Thatís sort of the standard argument. ďWhy didnít my record do as well as I thought it should have?Ē The other disputes center around money. Royalty audits or disputes how much money someone is getting paid on publishing.
All contracts give artists the right to check the books of a label.
Virtually every contract lets you look at their books. Even if they didnít, you could file a lawsuit and do it. The problem isnít looking at them. The problem is what does the contract say. Whether they did what they were supposed to--even if it is outrageous. An artist, if they are successful, may send in an auditor to make sure they got paid what they were supposed to be paid. There may be some areas where you will have some dispute.
There are always questions over collection of foreign income.
All of the time. You can insure (collection) in the contract but whether or not they do it is a different issue.
Labels usually have term options that they can cancel or modify a contract. Itís hard for an artist to open up a contract before it runs out.
Well, it has gotten more difficult. If you are an artist who has really exploded, and had success for a couple of albums, you are going to be able to renegotiate. You might not get what you would have got 10 years ago. You wonít, but you will certainly be able to renegotiate. If you are an artist who has had only one successful album, it is much harder (to renegotiate) because (the labels) are scared that it was a fluke. There are a lot of examples these days with artists with huge albums, and the next one sells nothing. They are very worried about things like that.
A decade ago, there were numerous high-profile joint venture deals with artists. But labels seem to have shied away from them since. Itís very difficult to get any kind of deal with a major label where they are going to take the risk, spend all the money, and get half of the assets.
I think thatís right. They (joint venture deals) are much harder to come by these days. But they are still around, if an artist has enough clout.
[While major labels may have viewed artists' imprints a decade ago as little more than as an investment in keeping a performer happy, deals were negotiated for: Shaggy's Big Yard (MCA); Busta Rhymes' Flipmode (J Records); Backstreet Boys' the Label (Interscope); DMX's Bloodline (Def Jam); Wyclef Jean's Wyclef Records (J Records); and Madonna's Maverick (Warner Bros).
The most successful joint venture artist deal has been the Maverick Records co-venture by Madonna with Time Warner in 1992.
I think thatís probably right though David Foster has a pretty successful label too. Heís done quite well with it.
[Despite a colorful two decade production and songwriting career, Canadian Foster made his mark as a bonafide industry mogul in 1994 with the founding of 143 Records, his joint venture with Time Warner. He has since discovered, developed and successfully launched the careers of the Corrs, Plus One, Kevin Sharp, Renee Olstead, Josh Groban and Michael Bublť.]
Not all artists understand the business responsibilities they have when they start their own label
It depends on how big it is. Not all of the (companies) have employees. Some are just pure A&R sources. They (the artist) just find talent and turn it over to the (bigger) label. It just depends on the size of the venture (what their responsibilities are). But, you are quite right. Itís not just a casual vanity thing to do, particularly these days.
JV deals used to be a way for the major labels to keep a major artist happy.
For the most part, the artist-driven (joint ventures) havenít worked that well. The ones that have worked are the ones driven by someone like a producer; or someone with a management or an executive (business) background who can make sure that if great records get delivered, then someone, ideally, is running the company like a business.
Many of these operate more like production deals than true joint ventures.
Exactly. JV can be a production deal, and still be a profit share. It doesnít necessarily mean how much they take out of it. Normally a production deal will be (with) a royalty, as you are suggesting, but there are others that have others things with it. I was trying to draw the distinction of whether they were really starting a label or if they were just trying to find a couple of artists.
You represented Mariah Carey when she moved her publishing catalog in 2004. When a songwriter of that stature moves their publishing, what are they generally looking for from another publisher? More aggressive working of the catalog? Wider exploitation?
Yeah, I think thatís right but at a high enough level, you are mostly dealing with a banking deal. A lot of people think that publishersóa number of themódonít do as much as they say they are going to do. But, at the highest levels (of music copyright owners) yes, they definitely want someone who will exploit and work the catalog. They are also usually looking for a large check, and for better splits. Just an overall better deal. A lot of time, they can get a fresh start with people (new publishers) who come to the party that are enthusiastic. That can be boost.
[In 2004, Mariah Carey left Sony/ATV, and signed a long-term publishing deal with Universal Music Publishing Group. The worldwide pact included 135 copyrights, including 14 of Carey's 15 No. 1 hits on the Billboard Hot 100 (her remaining No. 1 was a 1992 remake of the Jackson 5ís 1970 No. 1 hit, "I'll Be There.")]
Have you handled any deals for estate catalogs?
I havenít taken any. I have been asked to do a couple but, for various reasons, they didnít seem like a fit for what I was doing. It is a different dynamic. You are not dealing directly with the artists; you are dealing with heirs. It's just a very different dynamic. It is not something I wouldnít do if the situation was right. With the ones that I have been asked to be involved in with there were problems within the camp. Thatís primarily why I didnít do them.
Other than on net neutrality President Obama has said little about copyright.
No. I donít think that thereís much movement to do any sweeping changes in copyright at this point. We canít even get a performance right for masters done. It is just politically very difficult.
Why do you write fiction?
The same reason I do a lot of things. Compulsion. I have always loved writing. Itís a creative outlet.
You became a fiction writer late in your life.
I have been writing since I was a little kid. I put it on hold while I was building my legal career. Then I came back to it later in life. When my life was a little more settled.
Who are your favourite authors? Say in mystery.
I like James Lee Burke a lot. Heís a terrific writer. I like Michael Chabon. Heís not a mystery writer. ďThe Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & ClayĒ (an epic historical novel charting 16 years in the lives of two Jewish cousins who create a popular series of comic books in the early Ď40s) won a Pulitzer (the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction). Heís a real good writer. I also like Jeffery Deaver.
Larry LeBlanc was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record. He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, the London Times and the New York Times.
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Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Arty Erk, Citrin Cooperman 04/27/16
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock íní Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gťlinas, Festival díťtť de Quťbec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Chris Gero, Yamaha Entertainment Group 10/26/16
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Darren Gilmore, Watchdog Management 03/17/16
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Martin Goldschmidt, Cooking Vinyl Group 09/29/16
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, Turntable.fm 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Michael Gudinski, The Mushroom Group 10/29/15
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
Evan Harrison, Huka Entertainment 12/08/16
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Laura Hassler, Musicians without Borders 12/02/15
Abe Hathot, Musician, composer, and music producer. 12/21/16
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Laurent Hubert, BMG US 11/12/15
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Ariel Hyatt, Author, and founder of Cyber PR 11/23/16
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Steve Kane, Warner Music Canada 02/09/17
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Harvey Kubernik, Author/historian/music journalist 08/20/15
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Emily Lazar, The Lodge 10/15/15
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Adam Lewis, Planetary Group 01/20/16
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Jim Lidestri, Border City Media 09/03/15
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Jorge Mejia, Sony/ATV Music Publishing 09/17/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
Andrť Mťnard, Festival International de Jazz de Montrťal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Marty Monson, Barbershop Harmony Society 07/07/16
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Kevin Morrow, Steel Wool Entertainment 01/25/17
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Natalia Nastaskin, United Talent Agency 04/13/16
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley OíConnor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Donald S. Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 01/06/16
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Dave Pichilingi, Sound City 03/30/16
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Jack Randall, The Kurland Agency 03/08/17
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Tamara Saviano, Author, journalist, and producer 08/18/16
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, ItsAboutMusic.com 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Sheck, ACCESS Event Solutions 06/22/16
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Garrison Snell, Gyrosity Projects 02/23/17
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Mandar Thakur, Times Music 08/06/15
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
Rob Tonkin, Marketing Factory 12/17/15
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Kirt Webster, Webster PR 02/03/16
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Adam White, Author 09/14/16
Adam Wilkes, AEG Live Asia 10/13/16
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, Twincloud.com 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Keith Wortman, Blackbird Presents 03/22/17
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, CultureCatch.com 07/27/07
Jeremiah ďIceĒ Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06
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